“Good gardening practices begin with the soil. Soil is the foundation of life for plants. I have found that many people take soil for granted. We should put its management higher in priority than the plants.
Fall is the best time to make improvements. Vegetable gardens and annual plantings can be prepared now so that come spring, they are ready for planting.
Turning the soil over in the fall is more about course tillage. Depending on the size of the garden, this can be done with a spade or tiller. The goal is to leave the bed with larger, chunkier clods that the freezing and thawing of winter will naturally break down.”